Controversy first arose when the French-owned and Montgomery County, Maryland -based Keolis (already operating Virginia Railway Express trains) was the only bidder for the contract. The bidding process was suspended in the fall of 2010 due to lack of competition. Before bidding reopened in 2011, Maryland passed a law (at the request of Leo Bretholz and other Holocaust survivors) requiring Keolis's majority owner, SNCF (currently solely owned by the French government)  to fully disclose its role in transporting Jews to concentration camps during World War II (while SNCF was under control of the Nazi government), to the satisfaction of the Maryland state archivist, before Keolis would be allowed to place a bid for MARC service. Keolis faced similar issues while bidding for VRE operations in 2009, but in the end, they were allowed to run VRE.
Michael Mauboussin describes the first of the three elements of “complexity” in this way: “the system consists of a number of heterogeneous agents, and each of those agents makes decisions about how to behave. The most important dimension here is that those decisions will evolve over time.” These heterogeneous agents might be ants, investors, businesses, genes or neurons. Mauboussin makes a key point here for investors and business people about the significance of this element: “markets tend to be efficient when the agents operate in a truly heterogeneous fashion and the aggregation mechanism is working smoothly. Diversity is essential, both in nature and in markets, and the system has to be able to take advantage of that diversity.” When diversity breaks down, as was the case during the internet bubble or the lead up to the 2007 financial crisis, markets can get very inefficient. Collections of intelligent and diverse heterogeneous agents are capable of forming self-organizing, learning, adaptive collectives that can exhibit the “wisdom of crowds.” The method that some people have pursued to study the interaction of heterogeneous agents is known as agent-based modeling.
In the winter of 2013 in Leh , the Army was expected to begin the winter trials of the short-listed rifles: Beretta ARX 160 from Italy , CZ-805 BREN from Czech Republic , ACE 1 of Israel Weapon Industries , SIG Sauer SG 551 from Switzerland and the Colt Combat Rifle from the USA, a variant of the M16A1 made for the Indian Army's requirements.   By February 2014, the four rifles remaining in the competition were the CZ-805, ARX-160, Galil ACE, and Colt Combat Rifle.  The Indian Army began the final round of trials for its requirement for mm carbines in June 2014. The remaining rifles were the Beretta ARX-160, Colt M4, and IWI Galil ACE.  By October 2014, only the Galil ACE and ARX-160 were left in the competition.  However, the Army sent a letter to the manufacturers on 15 June 2015, to notify them that the tender has been retracted.